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Dear Trevor Robert Anthony I finally have had a few minutes to respond to your excellent question about why we use Hadith? I will first post your question and reply in short. I want to write it here so that others may benefit from it. Or correct me if I am wrong.
"Assalumualaikum. I have a question that you may see often. I have tried to seek scholarly opinions, and still get mixed answers. Please forgive me for asking, but I really want to find the correct answer. If the Quran tells us it is perfect alone. Needs no other book. Is compete. 6:38 says nothing is left out. 6:114 says Quran is fully detail. 7:12, 16:89 and 12:111 say that Quran is a full explanation of all things. 69:44 says "had he (Muhammad pbuh) taught anything else..." Saying that he taught Quran alone. And 45:6 tells us not to use Hadith... Then why do we use Hadith?"
First, let me start by citing all the verses above in full text so that we can determine their relevance to the argument that Hadith is not necessary.
Here are the verses followed by my comments.
[Say], "Then is it other than Allah I should seek as judge while it is He who has revealed to you the Book explained in detail?" And those to whom We [previously] gave the Scripture know that it is sent down from your Lord in truth, so never be among the doubters.
[ Allah ] said, "What prevented you from prostrating when I commanded you?" [Satan] said, "I am better than him. You created me from fire and created him from clay."
There was certainly in their stories a lesson for those of understanding. Never was the Qur'an a narration invented, but a confirmation of what was before it and a detailed explanation of all things and guidance and mercy for a people who believe.
And [mention] the Day when We will resurrect among every nation a witness over them from themselves. And We will bring you, [O Muhammad], as a witness over your nation. And We have sent down to you the Book as clarification for all things and as guidance and mercy and good tidings for the Muslims.
And if Muhammad had made up about Us some [false] sayings,
We would have seized him by the right hand;
Then We would have cut from him the aorta.
And there is no one of you who could prevent [Us] from him.
And indeed, the Qur'an is a reminder for the righteous.
Now my commentary on the verses cited in your questions. Let's begin by 6:114.
It states that the book is clear. It says nothing about not following the teachings of the Prophet. It also commands people to avoid preferring doubt over knowledge.
7:12--does not seem to be relevant at all to any question regarding Prophetic or any other tradition, as you can see clearly. It talks about the refusal of the Satan to bow down when commanded.
12:111, it states that Qur'an is real stories, and is free of fabrications. It also adds that it is clear. Nothing specifically about not following the sunna. I will come back to the question of clear and the tag question of why should we then follow the sunna?
16:89: the relevant part here is that the book explains everything and is a guidance. We will discuss the relevance of that to the general argument below.
69:44-48: I cited here a few extra verses from those cluster of verses which start with the verse you referenced. All that these verses say is that if Muhammad had fabricated anything, God would have punished him immediately.
Now, a reply to the argument:
Qur'an is clear, why then the need for something else? The clarity of Qur'an is actually the best evidence that one must follow Sunna (Hadith)! See the Qur'anic examples below and my commentary below each verse or cluster of verses.
So if the motive is to clearly follow Qur'an and be loyal to its message, then here is what Qur'an says too.
59:7: And what Allah restored to His Messenger from the people of the towns - it is for Allah and for the Messenger and for [his] near relatives and orphans and the [stranded] traveler - so that it will not be a perpetual distribution among the rich from among you. And whatever the Messenger has given you - take; and what he has forbidden you - refrain from. And fear Allah ; indeed, Allah is severe in penalty.
Clearly, even though the context is the spoil of war, the general statement--corroborated by other verses-- is a command to accept what the prophet puts forth and desist from what he warns against.
But no, by your Lord, they will not [truly] believe until they make you, [O Muhammad], judge concerning that over which they dispute among themselves and then find within themselves no discomfort from what you have judged and submit in [full, willing] submission.
Clearly, the clear Qur'an says that the ultimate judge is the Prophet Muhammad and that a true sign of belief comes with a complete submission to whatever he commands.
33:36: It is not for a believing man or a believing woman, when Allah and His Messenger have decided a matter, that they should [thereafter] have any choice about their affair. And whoever disobeys Allah and His Messenger has certainly strayed into clear error.
Evidently, this verse also stresses that one must accept whatever the Prophet decrees, no matter how uncomfortable the decision may seem at first. In fact, ultimate belief is the ability to find no discomfort in one's heart in obeying all of the Prophet's commands.
3:31 Say, [O Muhammad], "If you should love Allah , then follow me, [so] Allah will love you and forgive you your sins. And Allah is Forgiving and Merciful."
This clearly says that those who love Allah and evidently Qur'an must follow the Prophet. It makes no sense for someone to love Qur'an so much and ignore what the Prophet said, or did or tacitly approved.
Nor does he speak from [his own] inclination. It is not but a revelation revealed,
These two short verses indicate that whatever the Prophet says--unless otherwise specified, is a revelation or inspiration from God.
Therefore, overlooking that on the ground that Qur'an is clear and detailed is a failure to see these details in the Qur'an as well.
In other words, as these examples show Qur'an is detailed and clear, and a part of its clarify and thoroughness is telling people to follow the prophet and his commandments.
And this is not restricted to the Prophet Muhammad; it has all along been the norm with all Prophets.
4:64: And We did not send any messenger except to be obeyed by permission of Allah . And if, when they wronged themselves, they had come to you, [O Muhammad], and asked forgiveness of Allah and the Messenger had asked forgiveness for them, they would have found Allah Accepting of repentance and Merciful.
The verse here is very clear that all Prophets are meant to be obeyed and listened to. After all, God has chosen them because they are the best, the most trustworthy and dependable of their time. And they have a message of Him. They know, better than anyone else, what it means, what it entails and what its limits are. So discarding what they say, how they interpret commandments is nothing but sheer arrogance. And there is a good deal of that throughout history.
Now, the verse also contains clear commandment to go back to the Prophet Muhammad himself in cases of dispute or doubt.
Again look at verse 4:59
O you who have believed, obey Allah and obey the Messenger and those in authority among you. And if you disagree over anything, refer it to Allah and the Messenger, if you should believe in Allah and the Last Day. That is the best [way] and best in result.
The command here is clear that we must obey Allah, His messenger and people in authority--if latter's commandments do not contravene the commandments of the Allah and Hid Prophet.
The verse is also very clear that any disagreement between us should be referred to the Prophet. Since the Prophet has left us, we must refer to his sunna/Hadith.
Furthermore, let's reflect on this verse from the Surah or Jumu'a:
It is He who has sent among the unlettered a Messenger from themselves reciting to them His verses and purifying them and teaching them the Book and wisdom - although they were before in clear error -
The verse states that Allah has sent Muhammad to recite His verses, but also to teach the book (Qur'an) and to give his followers further wisdom, derived, of course, from the same source, Allah subhanahu wa ta'ala.
In other ways, a very vital part of the Prophet's role is not simply to recite the Qur'an, but to teach it and to enact it.
Those teaching and those actions are what we call sunna.
So those who have issues with it--at least at the level of rejecting it-- believe in one way or another that they can teach Qur'an or glean wisdom therefrom better than the man Allah entrusted with the mission. That is quite a humble position--being facetious of course.
You cited the Hadith from Muslim and from other sunnan books, which says write only Qur'an.
Beyond the irony of citing a hadith to prove that Hadith should not be used, the text is for the writers of Qur'an to stick to that in order to avoid a confusion later on about which is which.
This is a short reply and one done in haste. I did not have time here to respond to the practical needs of using Hadith, legally or otherwise. I will do that in a separate post in shaa Allah.
But let me here restate what I said above:
Yes, Qur'an is very clear and very detailed and left nothing out. Part of that clarity lies in a clear and consistent stress on the need to follow the Prophet and to ask those who know when unknowing or in doubt.
I hope this helps.

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